The Top Industrie horizontal hollow stainless steel cylinder closed at one end by a movable piston and one sapphire window at the other end allows the determination of phase diagrams for a wide range of compounds mixtures. A video acquisition system, made up of an endoscope plus a video camera, placed behind the sapphire window, displays on a computer screen the behaviour of the fluid inside the measuring cell. Capable of operate at temperatures up to 150 ºC (by means of a bath circulator) and pressures up to 1500 bar, associated to easy sample preparation (by weight difference), makes this non-destructive testing a very convenient method.
The Nima Surface Tensiometer DST9005 allows the measurement and recording of forces at the gas/liquid and liquid/liquid interfaces. This model is a sophisticated computer controlled instrument that can measure the forces on samples as they are immersed in the test liquid. NIMA DST 9005 tensiometer can operate either with a Pt/Ir Du Noüy ring or with a Wilhelmy plate, both based on force measurements. Moreover, a temperature controllable stage and stirrer agitator are included for precise and repeatable measurements. The thermostatization is carried by means of a double-jacketed cell coupled to an HAAKE F6 bath circulator. The system is equipped with a Pt100 probe that is able to control the temperature of the measurements within ± 0.01 K.
The Metrohm 831 Karl-Fischer (KF) coulometer allows the water quantification of liquid and solid samples. The coulometric KF titration results from the iodine reaction with water. The iodine needed is generated directly in the electrolyte by electrochemical means. The strictly quantitative relationship between the electric charge and the amount of iodine generated is used for the high-precision supply of the iodine. The titration end point is determined voltametrically by the application of an alternating current of constant strength to a double Pt electrode. The clear display screen provides information about the relevant titration parameters and gives an unmistakable presentation of the course of titration in the type of a curve showing the µg of water content as a function of the titration time.
The Mathis TCi is a “one size fits all” thermal conductivity tool. This instrument can test solids, liquids, powders, and pastes by using a new base platform technology developed by Mathis. The solid-state sensor technology, as well as associated electronics and software base modules allow non-destructive testing requiring little to no sample preparation, including testing very small samples (nickel size) to very large (sheet). Testing times are within a few seconds and automated testing remains a key convinience.
The vapour-liquid equilibria apparatus is a static system, capable of measuring vapour pressures in the range of (0 – 0.69) MPa (via a Paroscientific Digiquartz 2100A absolute pressure transducer), in the temperature range (253 to 363) K. In the current stage of development, it is suited for measuring vapour pressures of pure condensed phases. In perspective, the apparatus will be upgraded to measure vapour-liquid equilibria of mixtures with non-volatile solutes, in the same pressure and temperature range. A second pressure sensor will allow for the measurements of low vapour pressures.
The air bath oven is an hand-made equipment that allows the liquid-liquid equilibration of several systems at different temperatures. The samples are thermostatized directly in an aluminium block with specific holes for 20 mL glass vials. The temperature is maintained within ± 0.01 K by means of a PID temperature controller driven by a calibrated Pt100 (class 1/10). The temperature sensor is directly inserted in the aluminium block to obtain accurate and precise results. In order to achieve temperatures below the room temperature, a Julabo circulator, model F25-HD, is coupled to the overall oven system allowing the passage of a thermostatized fluid flux around the aluminium block.
The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is a simple, high-resolution mass sensing technique, based upon the piezoelectric effect. This apparatus operates in the pressure range from 2x10-6 to 1 bar in the temperature range from 263 to 340 K. Measurements of sorption rates and equilibria solubility of gases and vapors in polymers can be obtained with high sensitivity. Requires that the crystal is coated with thin polymer film.